This is an assurance of peace and protection given by the servant of Allah Omar, Commander of the Believers to the people of Ilia’ (Jerusalem). He gave them an assurance of protection for their lives, property, churches and crosses as well as the sick and healthy and all its religious community.
The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) used to bring the minors to accountability for their mistakes and wrong-doings with moderation and without any excess or carelessness as is mentioned above. Even the degree of accountability or blame differed and was not of one degree all the time. It varied according to the graveness of the mistake or the wrong-doing and its dangerousness. It also varied according to the fact that whether the doer repented and blamed himself or he was insistent on the wrong-doing and persistent therein. It also varied according to whether the doer was ignorant of the Islamic ruling on the issue or s/he was fully aware thereof. In addition to many other factors according to which the degree of blame was different and gradable.
Baybars gained his first major military victory as commander of the Ayyoubid army at the city of Al-Mansoorah in February 1250 CE against the Crusaders’ army led by Louis IX of France, who was captured and later released for a large ransom. Filled with a sense of pride at their military strength and growing importance in Egypt, a group of Mamluk officers in the same year murdered the new Sultan, Turan Shah.
As an Islamic scholar wrote on the advent of the 15th century of the Hijrah calendar 22 years ago, “It (the advent of the 15th century) is indeed a unique occasion to ponder that the Islamic Era did not start with the victories of Islamic wars, nor with the birth or death of the Prophet nor even with the Revelation of the Qur’an itself. It starts with Hijrah, or the sacrifice for the cause of Truth and for the preservation of the Revelation.
Friends are by no means only a means for ‘time-pass’ or entertainment. Indeed friendship is more profound than that. Friendship and companionship are inseparable aspects of an individual’s life. Experience has shown, too, that many friendships have changed the destiny of individuals and their course of life. Friends influence each other’s ways, faith, and religion.
Islam is a “total way of life.” It has provided guidance in every sphere of life, from individual cleanliness, rules of trade, to the structure and politics of the society. Islam can never be separated from social, political, or economic life since religion provides moral guidance for every action that a person takes. The primary act of faith is to strive to implement God’s will in both private and public life.
Over the last two centuries the Islamic world has been under another transformation from the West. The Europeans who came in the 19th and 20th centuries to militarily colonize the Muslim world did not convert like the Turks and Mongols. For the first time, Muslims were politically subjugated by the European empires of Russia, Holland, Britain, and France.
The revelation of the Qur’an was not an isolated event in time. It was a constant stream of verses descending to Muhammad PBUH throughout the 23 years of his prophethood in Makkah and Madinah. The Prophet PBUH appointed numerous Companions of his to serve as scribes, writing down the latest verses as soon as they were revealed. Mu’awiya ibn Abu Sufyan and Zaid bin Thabit were among the scribes who had this duty.
Zuhd entails abandoning whatever of this world that does not bring about benefit in the Hereafter. Zuhd resides in the heart, and is practiced by ridding the heart of enslavement from the unwarranted desire and the over-attentiveness to things that are temporary. It entails your being more certain in what Allah has in store for you, than your are about what you have in your hand.
A nation suffering from the mental maladies mentioned in the above verse cannot hope to recover its power of original thinking without changing its inner self. And without the power of original thinking, a nation that is down and being pushed around, as we are, cannot acquire power over its own world let alone acquiring power over the forces of the outer world.